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Forging is a manufacturing process carbon steel pipe for shaping metal. Forging involves a series of compression under locally applied pressure, often delivered by a power hammer or a die. This manufacturing process typically delivers a variety of benefits, including increased ductility, high tensile and fatigue strength, low porosity along the surface, and fine grain structure.
The materials of steel forging include stainless steel (SS303, SS304, SS316, ect.), carbon steel (1020, 1035, 1045, A105, Q235, 20CrMnTi, ect.) and alloy steel (20Cr, 20CrMo, 30CrMo, 35CrMo, 42CrMo, ect.). Forged steel is an alloy mixture of carbon and iron. During the forging process of steel, the steel is heated until it reaches a specific malleability and is molded into a specific shape, using locally applied force. This process allows for shaping without cracking and strengthens the resulting steel product.
Cold Forging: The process of cold forging steel takes place at room conditions and self-heats up to 150ºC. This shaping method requires high forming forces and is characterized by low ductility, low formability, and increased strength. Other metals and alloys shaped by cold forging include brass, bronze, and copper.
Warm Forging: The forming temperatures for warm forging range from 750ºC to 950ºC. Warm forging requires higher forming forces than hot forging but lower forming forces than cold forging. This forming process presents minimal surface scaling.
Hot Forging: Hot forging promises good formability, with forming temperatures reaching 950-1250ºC. The hot forging process requires low forming forces and presents a constant tensile strength. Steel alloys are usually molded with the hot forging method.
The Upset Forging Process
The Open Die Forging Process