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Forging

Blank forgings weighing up to 38 tonnes.

Forging is a manufacturing process carbon steel pipe for shaping metal. Forging involves a series of compression under locally applied pressure, often delivered by a power hammer or a die. This manufacturing process typically delivers a variety of benefits, including increased ductility, high tensile and fatigue strength, low porosity along the surface, and fine grain structure.


The materials of steel forging include stainless steel (SS303, SS304, SS316, ect.), carbon steel (1020, 1035, 1045, A105, Q235, 20CrMnTi, ect.) and alloy steel (20Cr, 20CrMo, 30CrMo, 35CrMo, 42CrMo, ect.). Forged steel is an alloy mixture of carbon and iron. During the forging process of steel, the steel is heated until it reaches a specific malleability and is molded into a specific shape, using locally applied force. This process allows for shaping without cracking and strengthens the resulting steel product.

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Specifications & Grades

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Description

Cold Forging: The process of cold forging steel takes place at room conditions and self-heats up to 150ºC. This shaping method requires high forming forces and is characterized by low ductility, low formability, and increased strength. Other metals and alloys shaped by cold forging include brass, bronze, and copper.

Warm Forging: The forming temperatures for warm forging range from 750ºC to 950ºC. Warm forging requires higher forming forces than hot forging but lower forming forces than cold forging. This forming process presents minimal surface scaling.

Hot Forging: Hot forging promises good formability, with forming temperatures reaching 950-1250ºC. The hot forging process requires low forming forces and presents a constant tensile strength. Steel alloys are usually molded with the hot forging method.

Manufacturing Process

The Upset Forging Process


Upset Forging is a metal forming process used to reduce the cross-sectional area of a preheated metal bar by applying pressure at its end in the direction of its axis. The Heading Tool, commonly known as a ‘grip die’, is used to create a cavity in the end of the bar, which is then displaced by the applied pressure. This process is often used to form the bar to the required shape through multiple upsetting operations.




The Drop Forging Process

The drop forging process is a type of closed die forging that uses a heated metal bar, pre-form shape, or billet within the wall cavity of two dies. This process can also be referred to as impression die forging. The impression for the forging can be in either die or divided between a top and bottom die. Through this process, the material grain structure is compressed and aligned to the required component shape, giving it improved strength and resilience. Components manufactured using this process are stronger than their machined or cast equivalents.





The Horizontal Counter-blow Process

Counter blow forging machines use two bodies of equal mass which are accelerated towards each other at the same speed. When they collide, the reaction forces are equal and opposite, concentrating the energy within the two bodies. Placing forging stock between the bodies allows the impact energy to deform it. The impact energy is pre-set and regulated by precise timing controls to maintain consistent energy levels for metal deformation. This is an efficient process as only the required amount of energy is used for the size and complexity of the product being manufactured.


The Open Die Forging Process


Open die forging is a traditional blacksmith technique that uses the application of heat and careful hammering or pressing to create the desired shape of a work-piece. The billet is heated to temperatures between 1000°C and 1300°C for steel and then gradually shaped using the forging process. This process elongates and compresses the grain flow which can improve the mechanical properties of the final component, giving it strength and resilience. Open die forging is often used when conventional forging processes are not suitable due to size and complexity, and is usually followed by machining to achieve the desired.



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